What is a concussion or TBI?‍

A concussion or a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)  is any sudden trauma causing damage to the brain. A concussion / TBI changes how the brain normally functions. Nearly 50%of all concussions / TBI’s are undetected or undiagnosed by medical professionals.  We work with or have access to some of the leading medical experts in the United States, and have routinely referred our clients to these brain experts for proper diagnosis, care and treatment.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. What is a brain injury?

Brain injuries are often misunderstood. A traumatic brain injury (TBI) can be caused by a forceful bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body, or from an object that pierces the skull and enters the brain. Not all blows or jolts to the head result in a TBI, and conversely all TBI's do not arise from a blunt force.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Some types of TBI can cause temporary or short-term problems with normal brain function, including problems with how the person thinks, understands, moves, communicates, and acts. More serious TBI can lead to severe and permanent disability, and even death.

Some injuries are considered primary, meaning the damage is immediate. Other outcomes of TBI can be secondary, meaning they can occur gradually over the course of hours, days, or appear weeks later. These secondary brain injuries are the result of reactive processes that occur after the initial head trauma.

There are two broad types of head injuries: Penetrating and non-penetrating.

  1. Penetrating TBI (also known as open TBI) happens when an object pierces the skull (e.g., a bullet, shrapnel, bone fragment, or by a weapon such as hammer or knife) and enters the brain tissue. Penetrating TBI typically damages only part of the brain.
  2. Non-penetrating TBI (also known as closed head injury or blunt TBI) is caused by an external force strong enough to move the brain within the skull. Causes include falls, motor vehicle crashes, sports injuries, blast injury, or being struck by an object.

Some accidents such as explosions, natural disasters, or other extreme events can cause both penetrating and non- penetrating TBI in the same person.

2. My doctor says the MRI doesn't show a brain injury. How can this be correct?

The defense will often point out that there are no objective findings for your TBI. This is misleading because 90% of all medical tests do not show any findings for mild TBI's. As an experienced brain injury plaintiff attorney, I know how to counteract their claims that there is no evidence of a TBI with the truth and simple facts.

3. What are the common symptoms of a concussion or brain injury?

Even mild TBI’s and concussions canexperience any or all of the following symptoms:


·       Headache (most common symptom)

·       Light sensitivity

·       Noise sensitivity

·       Dizziness occurs in 40-60% of individuals.

·       Nausea

·       Vomiting

·       Diminished ability to use electronic devices

·       Loss of smell and taste

·       Neck pain

·       Anti-inflammatory pain medication

·       TMJ

·       Jaw muscle spasms

·       Lock jaw

·       Inability to chew certain foods

·       Weight loss

·       Inability to work same hours

·       Missing recreational events (wedding, vacation, etc)

·       Myofascial damage can refer pain to shoulders, face and scalp

·         Numerous medical doctortesting and treatment­­­­

·       Reduced range of motion




·       Concentration Impairment

·       Confusion

·       Inattention / Inability to Focus

·       Short or Long Term Memory Loss

·       Difficulty finding words

·       Information processing – feeling slowed down

·       Executive functioning – foggy or groggy, not thinking clearly



·       Depression

·       Irritability / easily angered

·       Emotional lability

·       Anxiety / nervousness

·       Inflexible behavior

·       Difficulty maintaining friendships





·       Insomnia

·       Sleep disorder falling and/or staying asleep

Several years after injury somnolence is common

4. What are the diagnostic criteria for mild TBI/ concussion?

•Any period of loss of consciousness (LOC)

•Any alteration in mental state at the time of the incident (ie, feeling dazed,confused)

•Neurological deficits where severity does exceed:

-Loss of consciousness of 30 minutes or less

-Initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 13-15

-Posttraumatic Amnesia (PTA) of < 24 hours

•Normal brain imaging results (for example CT scan or MRI)

5. What are the factors that affect my recovery from a TBI?

Some factors that influence recovery from a TBI include genes and age.

According to the National Institutes for Health:

Genes—Genetics may play a role in how quickly and completely a person recovers from a TBI. For example, researchers have found that apolipoprotein E ε4 (ApoE4) — a genetic variant associated with higher risks for Alzheimer's disease — is associated with worse health outcomes following a TBI. Much work remains to be done to understand how genetic factors, as well as how specific types of head injuries, affect recovery. This research may lead to new treatment strategies and improved outcomes for people with TBI.

Age—Studies suggest that age and the number of head injuries a person has suffered over his or her lifetime are two critical factors that impact recovery. For example, TBI-related brain swelling in children can be very different from the same condition in adults, even when the primary injuries are similar. Brain swelling in newborns, young infants, and teenagers often occurs much more quickly than it does in older individuals. Evidence from very limited CTE studies suggest that younger people (ages 20 to 40) tend to have behavioral and mood changes associated with CTE, while those who are older (ages 50+) have more cognitive difficulties.

6. How can a lawyer help me after an accident caused my concussion?

You've had an accident. After a TBI or concussion, things start to fall apart.  You have doctor appointments, medical bills, lost wages and more.  If someone is responsible for causing your injury, we will seek justice for your harms and losses. We handle the entire legal process.

7. What if I don’t know who’s responsible for my concussion or brain injury?

We’ll investigate to determine who could be responsible for your injury.  We often find responsible parties where other lawyers have overlooked them. These can include:

  • Property owners
  • Management companies
  • Property management companies
  • Franchisors / franchisees
  • Renters
  • Vehicle owners
  • Rental car agencies
  • Ride share companies
  • Manufacturers We are creative and experienced in finding the culpable parties and will hold them accountable.

Concussions by the Numbers:

  • 70,000 :  The annual number of Traumatic Brain Injury fatalities.
  • 15 seconds :  Every fifteen seconds a concussion / TBI occurs in the USA.
  • 60 Billion Dollars :  Annual costs of Traumatic Brain Injuries nationwide.
  • 523,000 :   Fall related Emergency Department visits for Traumatic Brain Injuries and concussions.

It’s not just football players and athletes…

Falls are the number one cause of concussions in the United States. 47% of all concussions are from falls. The second leading cause of concussions is being struck by an object (15%). The third leading cause is motor vehicle crashes (14%). Assaults are 9% of concussions. The remaining 15% are attributed to other causes of concussions.  Keep in mind up to half of all concussions go undetected and undiagnosed. We’ve been able to help clients get properly diagnosed so that they can get proper medical care.

You have symptoms.  You might have a concussion.  Perhaps you don’t know what to do next orwhere to start. We’ve helped numerous clients who started exactly where youare. Most of our traumatic brain injury clients have a hard time making itthrough the day.  They often minimize orconceal how difficult things are because they don’t want to be a burden orcomplain. By coming to us you not only help your own case, you also help othersby demanding change to prevent injuries like yours from happening again.  We handle the entire process for you.  We focus on the legal aspects of your recoveryso that you can focus on the most important thing - healing.  

Every One Of These Deaths Or Injuries Can Be Prevented.

Our goal is to make the world safer. Unfortunately, not everyone prioritizes safety. When they don’t, we hold them accountable. By hitting them where it hurts most, their pocketbooks, they are forced to pay attention to safety. That’s how we affect change.


What to Expect (when you weren’t expecting this)!



Concussion and brain injury symptoms can include physical, mental and emotional injuries. Most people don’t realize all the ways in which their injury has affected them. Friends and family are hesitant to bring up cognitive issues for fear of making things worse or hurting feelings. Symptoms can last from a few days to a permanent duration. The majority of TBIs are undiagnosed – even following medical evaluation. For a list of common symptoms please read the FAQ’s below.


Types of TBI's

A concussion / traumatic brain injury can happen when you strike your head against the steering wheel, headrest or window of a vehicle. You can also suffer a concussion or TBI without hitting your head. The sudden impact in a car/ truck crash can cause the brain to shift inside your head and slam against the bony underside of the skull. Brain injuries include Concussion, Extra-axial Hematoma, Contusion, Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage (SAH) , Diffuse Axonal Injury (DAI), and Mild TBI’s. Your injury is unique to you. It is our job to discover the responsible party and hold them accountable while you focus on recovery.




I already have a doctor…why do I need a TBI expert? Because we know that TBI’s and concussions are often undiagnosed, it’s important to utilize an expert in the field who knows how to properly diagnose your case. Far too often, patients are invalidated and feel dismissed when an MRI doesn’t show glaring brain damage, yet they know something is very wrong. We utilize experts that understand that normal brain imaging results like CT Scan and MRI are to be expected and are part of the definition of a mild TBI. Don’t become revictimized with a misdiagnosis.

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Please do not include any confidential or sensitive information in a contact form, text message, or voicemail. The contact form sends information by non-encrypted email, which is not secure. Submitting a contact form, sending a text message, making a phone call, or leaving a voicemail does not create an attorney-client relationship.

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